Stories about social change


Change, is the alteration and to make a difference in the state or condition of a thing or to substitute another state or condition. To change is to make a material difference so that the thing is distinctly different from what it was: Adjectives relating to change includes”

Changing one’s opinion, to alter, make different, become different, or undergo a change, make alterations to, adjust, make adjustments to, adapt, turn, amend, improve, modify, convert, revise, recast, reform, reshape, refashion, redesign, restyle, revamp, rework, remake, remodel, remold, redo, reconstruct, reorganize, reorder, refine, reorient. Change is made easier when the subjects of change are emotionally impacted. Emotions are biological states associated with the nervous system brought on by neurophysiological changes variously associated with thoughts, feelings, behavioural responses, and a degree of pleasure or displeasure. …  Emotions produce different physiological, behavioral and cognitive changes.

Social change is way human interactions and relationships transform cultural and social institutions over time, having a profound impact of society. Social change is the transformation of the social order in the community by making adjustments and variations to social institutions, behavior, and relations. It involves social evolution where the society  makes amendments to traditional societal norms leading to the necessary change. Why do people accept social influence? There are a number of reasons why people allow social influences to affect their thoughts and behavior. One reason is that we often conform to the norms of a group to gain acceptance of its members. Additionally,  group conformity enables a sense of cohesion within a society.

The Five Monkeys Experiment

To test a theory about social conditioning, an experimenter placed 5 monkeys in a large cage. High up at the top of the cage, well beyond the reach of the monkeys, he also placed a bunch of bananas. Underneath the bananas he placed a ladder. The monkeys immediately spot the bananas and one begins to climb the ladder. As he does, however, the experimenter sprays him with a stream of cold water. Then, he proceeds to spray each of the other monkeys. The monkey on the ladder scrambles off. And all 5 sit for a time on the floor, wet, cold, and bewildered. Soon, though, the temptation of the bananas is too great, and another monkey begins to climb the ladder. Again, the experimenter sprays the ambitious monkey with cold water and all the other monkeys as well. When a third monkey tries to climb the ladder, the other monkeys, wanting to avoid the cold spray, pull him off the ladder and beat him. Now one monkey is removed and a new monkey is introduced to the cage. Spotting the bananas, he naively begins to climb the ladder. The other monkeys pull him off and beat him. Here’s where it gets interesting. The experimenter removes a second one of the original monkeys from the cage and replaces him with a new monkey. Again, the new monkey begins to climb the ladder and, again, the other monkeys pull him off and beat him – including the monkey who had never been sprayed.

Monkeys at work

A modern version of the experiment

100 Monkey Theory

The hundredth monkey effect is an observed phenomenon in which a new behavior or idea is said to spread rapidly by unexplained means from one group to all related groups once a critical number of members of one group exhibit the new behavior or acknowledge the new idea. The Japanese monkey, Macaca Fuscata, had been observed in the wild for a period of over 30 years. In 1952, on the island of Koshima, scientists were providing monkeys with sweet potatoes dropped in the sand. The monkey liked the taste of the raw sweet potatoes, but they found the dirt unpleasant. An 18-month-old female named Imo found she could solve the problem by washing the potatoes in a nearby stream. She taught this trick to her mother. Her playmates also learned this new way and they taught their mothers too. This cultural innovation was gradually picked up by various monkeys before the eyes of the scientists. Between 1952 and 1958 all the young monkeys learned to wash the sandy sweet potatoes to make them more palatable. Only the adults who imitated their children learned this social improvement. Other adults kept eating the dirty sweet potatoes. Then something startling took place. In the autumn of 1958, a certain number of Koshima monkeys were washing sweet potatoes — the exact number is not known. Let us suppose that when the sun rose one morning there were 99 monkeys on Koshima Island who had learned to wash their sweet potatoes. Let’s further suppose that later that morning, the hundredth monkey learned to wash potatoes.

THEN IT HAPPENED! 

By that evening almost everyone in the tribe was washing sweet potatoes before eating them. The added energy of this hundredth monkey somehow created an ideological breakthrough! But notice: A most surprising thing observed by these scientists was that the habit of washing sweet potatoes then jumped over the sea…Colonies of monkeys on other islands and the mainland troop of monkeys at Takasakiyama began washing their sweet potatoes. Thus, when a certain critical number achieves an awareness, this new awareness may be communicated from mind to mind. Although the exact number may vary, this Hundredth Monkey Phenomenon means that when only a limited number of people know of a new way, it may remain the conscious property of these people. But there is a point at which if only one more person tunes-in to a new awareness, a field is strengthened so that this awareness is picked up by almost everyone!

The 100 monkeys in action

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Pavlov’s Dogs

During the 1890s, Russian physiologist, Ivan Pavlov was researching salivation in dogs in response to being fed. He inserted a small test tube into the cheek of each dog to measure saliva when the dogs were fed (with a powder made from meat). Pavlov predicted the dogs would salivate in response to the food placed in front of them, but he noticed that his dogs would begin to salivate whenever they heard the footsteps of his assistant who was bringing them the food When Pavlov discovered that any object or event which the dogs learned to associate with food (such as the lab assistant) would trigger the same response, he realized that he had made an important scientific discovery. Accordingly, he devoted the rest of his career to studying this type of learning.

Pavlovian Conditioning

Pavlov (1902) started from the idea that there are some things that a dog does not need to learn. For example, dogs don’t learn to salivate whenever they see food. This reflex is ‘hard-wired’ into the dog. In behaviorist terms, food is an unconditioned stimulus and salivation is an unconditioned response. (i.e., a stimulus-response connection that required no learning).

Unconditioned Stimulus (Food) > Unconditioned Response (Salivate)

In his experiment, Pavlov used a metronome as his neutral stimulus. By itself the metronome did not elecit a response from the dogs.

Neutral Stimulus (Metronome) > No Conditioned Response

Next, Pavlov began the conditioning procedure, whereby the clicking metronome was introduced just before he gave food to his dogs. After a number of repeats (trials) of this procedure he presented the metronome on its own. As you might expect, the sound of the clicking metronome on its own now caused an increase in salivation.

Conditioned Stimulus (Metronome) > Conditioned Response (Salivate)

So the dog had learned an association between the metronome and the food and a new behavior had been learned. Because this response was learned (or conditioned), it is called a conditioned response (and also known as a Pavlovian response). The neutral stimulus has become a conditioned stimulus. Pavlov found that for associations to be made, the two stimuli had to be presented close together in time (such as a bell). He called this the law of temporal contiguity. If the time between the conditioned stimulus (bell) and unconditioned stimulus (food) is too great, then learning will not occur. Pavlov and his studies of classical conditioning have become famous since his early work between 1890-1930. Classical conditioning is “classical” in that it is the first systematic study of basic laws of learning / conditioning

To summarize, classical conditioning (later developed by Watson, 1913 involves learning to associate an unconditioned stimulus that already brings about a particular response (i.e., a reflex) with a new (conditioned) stimulus, so that the new stimulus brings about the same response.

The Willie Lynch Letter And The Making of A Slave

The Willie Lynch Letter and the Making of a Slave is a study of slave making. It describes the rationale and the results of Euro-savage’s ideas and methods of insuring the master/slave, conqueror/conquered relationship. The infamous Willie Lynch letter gives us some insight, concerning the brutal and inhumane psychology and social conditioning, behind the the enslavement of Afurakan prisoners of colonial and imperial wars, and the trade in these prisoners for commerce. The materialistic viewpoint of Southern plantation owners that slaver was a business and the victims of chattel slavery were merely pawns in an economic game of debauchery, cross-breeding, inter-racial rape and mental and social conditioning of a group of people, they considered sub-human. Equally important is the international nature of the European economic, political and cultural climate that influenced this particular type of slave trade. Within the time scale of Afurakan History, it was a relatively short period, a mere one and a half centuries from the most intensive phase of the Atlantic slave trade to the advent of European administration and dominance.

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Since the cessation of this direct social experiment, of the Willie Lynch experiment, the dominant group in today’s society, continued to maintain the control of the lives of of not only the enslaved Afurakans, but every other ethnic groups on a tier system. The tier system became a sophisticated measuring stick of control of lives and movement. The control was centered over nine areas of people activities.

According tho baba Neely Fuller, the Nine (9) Major Areas of People Activity in the Known Universe is as follows:

  1. Economics
  2. Education
  3. Entertainment
  4. Labor
  5. Law
  6. Politics
  7. Religion
  8. Sex
  9. War

Control over masses, especially the amurdikkklan manufactured being called the Kneegrow, blacks or other equally ambiguous names ( names that fail to attribute an origin or a nationality, i.e Ghanaian, Haitian etc), was necessary for survival of the system of social control called white pathology.

The traumas and negative conditioning of the past can’t be changed, we can only prevent its continuation in to future. The past is fixed and can’t actually be changed. But we must first overstand what happened in the past that has a direct affect on the present, and what it prepares us for in the future.