TIMELINE OF U.S. RELATIONS WITH JAMAICA
1838 Slavery is abolished on the Island
1890’sUnited Fruit Company begins banana production/export:
To over stand the involvement of the Corporate United States, you must read The Banana Wars: United States Intervention in the Caribbean between 1898-1934 offers a sweeping panorama of America’s tropical empire in the age spanned by the two Roosevelt’s and a detailed narrative of U.S. military intervention in the Caribbean and Mexico.
Note: Jamaica grows some of the sweetest bananas in the world, but controls no export to foreign bases. Today Jamaica imports Banana’s from South America.
1914: United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) is established by
1916: Garvey moves UNIA to New York
1926: Garvey is sentenced to three years in a Georgia prison
1928: Garvey returns to Jamaica; People’s Political Party (PPP) is established
1930: Workingman and Labourers Association is formed
1938: Norman Manley founds People’s National Party (PNP)
1939-1945: World War II; bauxite is discovered in Jamaica
1942: Alexander Bustamante founds Jamaica Labour Party (JLP)
1944: British allow limited self-government
1944-1952: Major U.S. aluminium companies begin operations
1958-1962: British create West Indies Federation
1962: Jamaica becomes independent
1972-1976: Michael Manley serves first term as prime minister
1974: Manley declares his government socialist
1976: Jamaica establishes the International Bauxite Association (IBA)
1980: Edward Seaga’s Jamaica Labour Party (JLP) wins election
1989: Michael Manley returns as prime minister
1992: Manley resigns
1997: Manley dies at age 72
Michael Manley-as political leader of an economically oppressed Caribbean nation—was noted for being reform-minded progressives whose governments Washington targeted for destabilization. He was a social democrat who often went to great lengths to explain he was not a communist. Manley represented an oppressed country scarred by British colonialism and struggling to develop independently with the neo-colonial boot of U.S. imperialism on their backs.
Manley never advocated revolutionary armed struggle–the road followed by the Cuban revolutionaries and the only one that succeeded in liberating that nation from the imperialist yoke. But when Manley even declared socialism a worthy goal he became marked as an enemy by the American Inc imperialists and the local capitalist class.
As Prime Minister from 1972 to 1980, Manley was elected with overwhelming popular support, running under the banners of the Peoples National Party, respectively. Vowing to take a “non-capitalist”–though not Marxist-Leninist–path to development, the Manley administration ushered in domestic and foreign policy changes that angered rich mostly Anglo-Saxon and Asian Jamaicans and the White House. He promoted progressive laws affecting labour, women and children and his government took measures to create jobs and improve education, health care, housing and agriculture.
Much to the alarm of the Nixon and Ford administrations, the Jamaican government raised its share of royalties on the export of bauxite, the ore from which aluminium is made. Manley’s foreign policy included supporting Puerto Rico‘s independence from the Corporate United States. He backed the African National Congress in Azania –South Africa – and other liberation movements.
In 1976, Jamaica‘s relations with Cuba grew closer, which prompted him to visit Cuba. The next year, when Cuban President Fidel Castro visited Jamaica, swarms of people lined the roads to greet him. The imperialists felt their interests threatened by these measures so Washington targeted Manley’s government, by the “putting the squeeze on the economy,” as Manley himself described it. During that time a Washington-backed campaign of CIA terror left over 750 peoples, mostly the young, dead.
With the country gripped by economic instability and violence, Manley lost the 1980 election to Edward Seaga, head of the conservative, right-wing Jamaica Labour Party a CIA tool and a Washington loyalist. Manley won his offices not through revolutionary struggle, but through elections. But because he had progressive programs that showed sympathy for socialism, they were targeted and ousted after violent imperialist destabilization.
Manley returned to office in 1989. But like most that fought the America Inc’s Law and realized that Law won, Manley’s political programs had changed and his governments came under severe restrictions from the Corporate U.S. – controlled financial institutions like the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
In the end the watered down programs proved inadequate to liberate the workers and farmers Jamaica, even though in the beginning his popularity reflected the burning desire of the masses of the people of their countries to take a socialist path to liberation from British and U.S. imperialism.
Air Jamaica’s American problem The following is a link to a story of how America Inc set out to destroy Jamaica’s burgeoning Airline industry.
Condoleezza Rice Threatened Jamaica Over Aristide
President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, of Haiti, after escaping a Corporate U.S backed dethroning, had left to go to Africa. Randall Robinson of Trans America later accompanied him on his historic return trip back to the Caribbean, where the Haitian President had stayed in Jamaica with his wife, Mildred, and their two young daughters.
The Bush administration had characterized Aristide’s return to the Caribbean as inflaming the situation in Haiti and has gone as far as to label his presence an incitement to violence. Aristide maintains that he was kidnapped as part of a US-orchestrated coup
.During all that Bushit talk it had been revealed that National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice had told the Jamaican government if Aristide is not immediately expelled from the country and anything happens to American forces in Haiti, consequences would be exacted against Jamaica in full force by the U.S. Rice had steadfastly refused to appear before the 9-11 Commission to give sworn testimony, but she had been very busy with the situation in Haiti.
Rice and other officials had very publicly expressed their anger at President Jean-Bertrand Aristide’s return to the Western Hemisphere on March 15, after spending 2 weeks in the Central African Republic. Just as the Aristides were settling into their temporary life in Jamaica, news broke that the 15-nation Caribbean Community-CARICOM, had sent a formal request to the government of Nigeria, asking them to host Aristide.
Jamaica, CARICOM and the Nigerian government had all indicated that pressure had been put on them by Washington.The Book High Crimes of Murder reavels an indepth account of the CIA involvement in the attempted and eventually successful assination of Bob Marley and the concurrant defusion of Reggae Music as a vehicle of African consciousness to one of dance hall negativity – an expression of fratricide and self hate.
This is similar to the defusion of Rap music as a neighbourhood expresson to gansta rap- and expression of fratricide and self hate