Garvey began to sign up recruits who were willing to travel to Africa and “clear out the white invaders”. He formed an army, equipping them with uniforms and weapons. Garvey appealed to the new militant feelings of Africans in exile that followed the end of the First major European tribal War, and asked those African in America who had been willing to fight for democracy in Europe to now join his army to fight for equal rights.
In 1919 Garvey formed the Black Cross Navigation and Trading Company. With $10,000,000 invested by his supporters Garvey purchased two steamships, Shadyside and Kanawha, to take Africans in exile back to Africa. At a UNIA conference in August, 1920, Garvey was elected provisional president of Africa. He also had talks with the Ku Klux Klan about his plans to repatriate African exiles back to the motherland and published the first volume of Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey.
After making a couple of journeys to Africa the Black Cross Navigation and Trading Company ran out of money. Garvey was a tremendous organizer and leader, but an inexperienced businessman whose sincerity and honesty was infringed on and taken advantaged by unscrupulous people in his company who had been involved in corruption. Some of them posthumously identified as agents of recent FBI super sleuth…J. Edgar Hoover. Due to the actions of knee-grow agents in pay for the FBI, Garvey was arrested and charged with fraud and in 1925 was sentenced to five years imprisonment. He had served half of his sentence when President Calvin Coolidge commuted the rest of his prison term and had him deported to Jamaica.
In 1928 Garvey went on a lecture tour of Britain, France, Belgium, Switzerland and Canada. On Garvey’s return to Jamaica he established the People’s Political Party and a new daily newspaper, The Blackman. The following year Garvey was defeated in the general election for a seat in Jamaica’s colonial legislature.
In July, 1932, Garvey began publishing the evening newspaper, The New Jamaican. The venture was unsuccessful and the printing presses were seized for debts in 1933. He followed this with a monthly magazine, Black Man. He also launched an organization that he hoped would raise money to help create job opportunities for the rural poor in Jamaica.
The project was not a success and in March, 1935, Garvey moved to England where he published The Tragedy of White Injustice. Marcus Garvey continued to hold UNIA conventions and to tour the world making speeches on civil rights until his death in London on 10th June, 1940.
Marcus Garvey speaks
A lecture on Marcus Garvey by Tony Martin 2 parts
Marcus Garvey Pt 1
Marcus Garvey Pt 2
Marcus Garvey Pt 3
Marcus Garvey Pt4
Marcus Garvey Pt 5
Burning spear tribute